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# The expression that changed the course of human history

## The expression that changed the course of human history

The incorporation of zero (0) in creating the decimal system, without which there would have been little science and mathematics (civilization basically), as
9 + 1 = 10

Seva Lamberdar

Posts : 6580
Join date : 2012-11-29

## Re: The expression that changed the course of human history

Without Shunya (zero) making the decimal system feasible, such as 9 + 1 = 10, it would not be possible to easily and properly record numbers (values, measurements etc.) in science and mathematics, resulting in the lack of development and progress in science and mathematics.

Seva Lamberdar

Posts : 6580
Join date : 2012-11-29

## Re: The expression that changed the course of human history

Incidentally, this post is a reproduction of my recent response "Most importantly, the incorporation of zero (0) in creating the decimal system (without which there would have been little science and math, civilization basically), as 9 + 1 = 10" to the following Table on Facebook,

Seva Lamberdar

Posts : 6580
Join date : 2012-11-29

## Re: The expression that changed the course of human history

(2) The information about the decimal system (using base 10) in the Vedas

The following three consecutive hymns in the ancient Rig Veda mention the numbers ten (10), twenty (20), thirty (30), forty (40), fifty (50), sixty (60), seventy (70), eighty (80), ninety (90) and hundred (100) increasing in a sequential order, which seems to be a clear indication that people several millenniums ago (during the time of Rig Veda) were using the decimal system (based on the number 10) in counting and numbering.

“Indra, come hitherward with two Bay Coursers, come thou with four, with six when invocated.Come thou with eight, with ten, to drink the Soma. Here is the juice, brave Warrior: do not scorn it.” Rig Veda (Book 2: Hymn 18.4)

“O Indra, come thou hither having harnessed thy car with twenty, thirty, forty horses.Come thou with fifty well trained coursers, Indra, sixty or seventy, to drink the Soma.” Rig Veda (Book 2: Hymn 18.5)

“Come to us hitherward, O Indra, carried by eighty, ninety, or a hundred horses.This Soma juice among the Śunahotras hath been poured out, in love, to glad thee” Rig Veda (Book 2: Hymn 18.6)

Note also in the above numbers ten (10), twenty (20), thirty (30), ……, ninety (90) and hundred (100), the left digit increasing in sequential order from 1 to 10, which again confirms the use of decimal (10 based) system long ago according to these Rig Vedic hymns.

Similarly, based on the several ancient texts, e.g. the Mahabharata (Book 15: Ch. 15 - V. 8 and Ch. 31 - V. 3) and the Rig Veda (Book 1: Hymn 126.6, Book 3: Hymn 33.13), the concept of zero or shunya (shoonya, shunam or shoonam; meaning void, non-existence, emptiness or nothingness) was already known to people several thousand years ago.

Perhaps, based on the philosophical thinking (as indicated in the following hymn) that existent and non-existent can co-exist, they might have started long time ago to use shunya or 0 (the insignificant or empty digit) in conjunction with other significant digits (1, 2, etc.) to create the compound numbers (10, 20, etc.).

"Thereafter rose Desire in the beginning, Desire, the primal seed and germ of Spirit.Sages who searched with their heart's thought discovered the existent's kinship in the non-existent." Rig Veda (Book 10: Hymn 129.4).

Needless to say, many Rig Vedic hymns (including the one below) mention things in thousands (e.g. 20000, 40000, 90000..) which indicates that people long ago (during Vedic times) were quite at ease in large scale counting and numbering and that would be more likely if zero (0) was already incorporated then in the number system (as 10, 20,.., 100, ..., 1000, and so on).

"So, as a prize dear to the strong, the sixty thousand have I gained,Bulls that resemble vigorous steeds." Rig Veda (Book 8: hymn 46.29)

Ref.: Subhash C. Sharma, "The Early Vedic Hymns On Mathematics, Time Relations And Religio-Philosophy," 2013, http://creative.sulekha.com/the-early-vedic-hymns-on-mathematics-time-relations-and-religio-philosophy_603687_blog

Seva Lamberdar

Posts : 6580
Join date : 2012-11-29

## Re: The expression that changed the course of human history

Seva Lamberdar wrote:Without Shunya (zero) making the decimal system feasible, such as 9 + 1 = 10, it would not be possible to easily and properly record numbers (values, measurements etc.) in science and mathematics, resulting in the lack of development and progress in science and mathematics.

The great discoveries and achievements in mathematics and science would not take place if the earlier humans (very likely the Vedic Indians) had not established the following already,

nine plus one equals ten (as one followed by zero) , i.e. 9 + 1 = 10: the basis for decimal system

Seva Lamberdar

Posts : 6580
Join date : 2012-11-29

## Re: The expression that changed the course of human history

Seva Lamberdar wrote:The incorporation of zero (0) in creating the decimal system, without which there would have been little science and mathematics (civilization basically), as
9 + 1 = 10
Incidentally, the expressions 1 + 1 = 10 (in binary system and machine language) and F + 1 = 10 (in hexadecimal system and assembly language) used in computers currently are based on the concept of original expression 9 + 1 = 10 in the decimal system.

Seva Lamberdar

Posts : 6580
Join date : 2012-11-29

## Re: The expression that changed the course of human history

The equation that changed the world,

9 + 1 = 10

The incorporation of 0 in the number system (as 10 for ten) as above equation gave rise to the efficient decimal system for expressing numbers (no matter how large) by using only ten digits (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0) and also led to the development of efficient mathematical operations using numbers (adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing), which led to huge advances in mathematics, science and commerce and put humanity on the path to unlimited progress.

Incidentally, the format using 0 in the decimal system (as 9 + 1 = 10) is also the basis for using 0 recently in computers: binary system (as 1 + 1 = 10) and hexadecimal systems (as F + 1 = 10).

Seva Lamberdar

Posts : 6580
Join date : 2012-11-29

## Re: The expression that changed the course of human history

Seva Lamberdar wrote:The equation that changed the world,

9 + 1 = 10

The incorporation of 0 in the number system (as 10 for ten) as above equation gave rise to the efficient decimal system for expressing numbers (no matter how large) by using only ten digits (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0) and also led to the development of efficient mathematical operations using numbers (adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing), which led to huge advances in mathematics, science and commerce and put humanity on the path to unlimited progress.

Incidentally, the format using 0 in the decimal system (as 9 + 1 = 10) is also the basis for using 0 recently in computers: binary system (as 1 + 1 = 10) and hexadecimal systems (as F + 1 = 10).
The ancient Rig Veda has hymns which mention numbers (while counting animals) in sets of ten increasing successively, as ten, twenty, thirty, forty, ...., hundred, implying thus that the use of present decimal system existed very long ago and extensively.

Seva Lamberdar

Posts : 6580
Join date : 2012-11-29

## Re: The expression that changed the course of human history

Was zero discovered or invented?

Seva Lamberdar

Posts : 6580
Join date : 2012-11-29